The ghusl of a deceased transgender

Question

What is the ruling regarding the ghusl of a deceased transgender?

السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته

  1. It is important to clarify that in Islam, an individual’s biological sex remains unchanged regardless of any alterations they make to their body. A male will always be considered a male, and a female will always be considered a female. The following discussion addresses the issue of individuals who may undergo changes to their bodies that could lead to situations of fitnah. It does not acknowledge an actual change in gender.
  2. Our scholars do not mention transgender individuals as this is a relatively new concept. They do however speak of the “attractive amrad” who share some similarities with transgender individuals, as they have physical features resembling females. We believe that the “attractive” transgender female should be treated as an attractive amrad. Regarding the attractive amrad, the jurists’ opinions differed.
  3. Imām Ramlī equates the washing of the attractive amrad with that of females, considering both to be impermissible for an adult male to look at, touch, or wash in the case of the deceased. Following Ramli’s position, the deceased attractive amrad, and similarly, the “attractive” transgender female, should be washed by their maḥarim (sing. maḥram).
    • In cases where a maḥram is unavailable to wash the attractive amrad and, by extension, the “attractive” transgender female, a non-maḥram male may wash the body while it is covered with a veil, ensuring no part of the body is seen or touched.
  4. Ibn Ḥajar, on the other hand, treated an attractive amrad as an intersex (hermaphrodite). Since the sex of an intersex (hermaphrodite) cannot be determined, either sex may wash the body in the absence of a maḥram, considering the necessity and near absence of any sexual desire.
    • Ibn Ḥajar thus permits a non-maḥram male to wash the body of an attractive amrad and by extension the transgender female in the absence of a mahram, due to necessity. In the instance of necessity, the body will only be washed once.
  5. In cases where the amrad, and similarly the transgender female, is not considered attractive and does not pose a risk of fitnah, any male, whether a maḥram or not, may wash the deceased body.
  6. To summarize, if there is a potential for sexual desire or fear of temptation while washing an “attractive” transgender person, his or her maḥram should wash the body. In the absence of a maḥram, an adult of the same sex should wash the body while it is covered with a veil, ensuring no part of the body is seen or touched.

والله تعالى أعلم

And Allāh knows best

النصوص المستندة إليها

 

قال ابن حجر على المنهاج (المسمى تحفة المحتاج) صــ ١٠٧، جـــ ٣

(ﻭ) اﻷﺻﻞ ﺃﻧﻪ (ﻳﻐﺴﻞ اﻟﺮﺟﻞ) ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺼﺐ ﻭﺧﻼﻓﻪ ﺭﻛﻴﻚ ﻟﺘﻔﻮﻳﺘﻪ ﻧﻜﺘﺔ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ اﻟﻤﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻼﻑ اﻷﺻﻞ ﻭﻫﻲ اﻹﺷﻌﺎﺭ ﺑﺄﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﺎ اﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ اﻟﻤﻴﺖ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺃﻣﺮﺩ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻳﺄﺗﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺨﻨﺜﻰ ﻭﻷﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺠﻨﺲ (اﻟﺮﺟﻞ، ﻭاﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ) ﻛﺬﻟﻚ (اﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ) ﺇﻟﺤﺎﻗﺎ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺑﺠﻨﺴﻪ

قال الشرواني على التحفة (المسمى حاشية الشرواني) جــ ٣، صــ ١١٠

ﺃﻣﺎ اﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﺣﺪا ﻳﺸﺘﻬﻰ ﻭاﻟﺨﻨﺜﻰ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺒﻴﺮا ﻟﻢ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺤﺮﻡ ﻓﻴﻐﺴﻠﻪ اﻟﻔﺮﻳﻘﺎﻥ ﺃﻣﺎ اﻷﻭﻝ ﻓﻮاﺿﺢ ﻭﺃﻣﺎ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻓﻠﻠﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺿﻌﻒ اﻟﺸﻬﻮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻮﺕ ﻭﻳﻐﺴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺛﻮﺏ ﻭﻳﺤﺘﺎﻁ اﻟﻐﺎﺳﻞ ﻧﺪﺑﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻭاﻟﻤﺲ

(ﻗﻮﻟﻪ: ﻭﻳﻐﺴﻞ) ﺃﻱ اﻟﺨﻨﺜﻰ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻓﻘﺪ اﻟﻤﺤﺮﻡ ﻣﻦ (ﻓﻮﻕ ﺛﻮﺏ) ﺃﻱ ﻭﺟﻮﺑﺎ ﻋ ﺷ (ﻗﻮﻟﻪ: ﻭﻳﺤﺘﺎﻁ اﻟﻐﺎﺳﻞ ﺇﻟﺦ) ﻭﻳﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﻴﻦ اﻷﺟﻨﺒﻲ ﺃﻱ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺣﺮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﺗﻐﺴﻴﻠﻪ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﺤﺘﻤﻞ اﻻﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻨﺲ اﻟﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ اﻷﻧﻮﺛﺔ ﺑﺨﻼﻓﻪ ﺛﻢ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﻣﻐﻨﻲ (ﻗﻮﻟﻪ: ﻧﺪﺑﺎ) ﻗﺎﻝ اﻟﻨﺎﺷﺮﻱ (ﺗﺘﻤﺔ) ﻗﺎﻝ اﻹﺳﻨﻮﻱ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﻠﻨﺎ ﺇﻥ اﻷﺟﻨﺒﻲ ﻳﻐﺴﻞ اﻟﺨﻨﺜﻰ ﻓﻴﺘﺠﻪ اﻗﺘﺼﺎﺭﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﺴﻠﺔ ﻭاﺣﺪﺓ ﻷﻥ اﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺗﻨﺪﻓﻊ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺳﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﻨﻬﺞ اﻩـ ﻋ ﺷ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ اﻹﻳﻌﺎﺏ ﻗﺎﻝ اﻟﻤﺎﻭﺭﺩﻱ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻐﺴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻇﻠﻤﺔ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻐﺴﻠﻪ ﺃﻭﺛﻖ ﻭاﻹﺳﻨﻮﻱ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺜﻠﺚ اﻩـ 

المرجع السابق صــ ١٠٧

(ﻗﻮﻟﻪ: ﻭﻟﻮ ﺃﻣﺮﺩ) ﻭاﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ اﻣﺘﻨﺎﻉ ﻏﺴﻠﻪ ﻟﻷﻣﺮﺩ ﺇﺫا ﺣﺮﻣﻨﺎ اﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﻪ ﺇﻟﺤﺎﻗﺎ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺳﻢ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻨﺎﺷﺮﻱ ﺃﻗﻮﻝ ﻭاﻣﺘﻨﺎﻉ ﺗﻐﺴﻴﻞ اﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﻟﻪ ﺇﺫا ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺎ ﻟﺤﺮﻣﺔ اﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ اﻩـ ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ: ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺎ ﺃﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺸﺘﻬﻰ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺄﺗﻲ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋ ﺷ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ: ﻣ ﺭ ﻭاﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺇﻟﺦ ﺧﻼﻓﺎ ﻟﺤﺞ.

ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ: ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ اﻟﻤﻴﺖ ﺃﻣﺮﺩ ﺣﺴﻦ اﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﻭﻟﻢ ﻳﺤﻀﺮ ﻣﺤﺮﻡ ﻟﻪ ﻳﻤﻢ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺑﻨﺎء ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺮﻣﺔ اﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ اﻧﺘﻬﻰ ﻭﻭاﻓﻘﻪ ﻣ ﺭ ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻗﻴﺪﻩ ﺑﻤﺎ ﺇﺫا ﺧﺸﻲ اﻟﻔﺘﻨﺔ ﻷﻧﻪ اﻋﺘﻤﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺻﺤﺤﻪ اﻟﺮاﻓﻌﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺤﺮﻡ اﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﻷﻣﺮﺩ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺧﻮﻑ اﻟﻔﺘﻨﺔ 

قال سعيد باعشن على المقدمة الحضرمية (المسمى بشرى الكريم) صــ ٤٥٣

ﻭﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻭاﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﺗﻐﺴﻴﻞ ﺻﻐﻴﺮ ﻭﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺒﻠﻐﺎ ﺣﺪ اﻟﺸﻬﻮﺓ، ﻭاﻟﺨﻨﺜﻰ اﻟﺬﻯ ﻻ ﻣﺤﺮﻡ ﻟﻪ؛ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺟﺔ، ﻭﻟﻀﻌﻒ اﻟﺸﻬﻮﺓ، ﻭﺑﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻕ ﺣﺮﻣﺔ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ اﻟﻔﺮﻳﻘﻴﻦ ﻟﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ.

(ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻌﺬﺭ ﻏﺴﻠﻪ)؛ ﻟﻔﻘﺪ ﻣﺎء، ﺃﻭ ﻟﺘﺄﺩﻱ ﻏﺴﻠﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻬﺮﻳﻪ؛ ﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺣﺮﻕ ﺃﻭ ﻟﺪﻍ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﺨﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻐﺎﺳﻞ، ﻭﻟﻢ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻪ اﻟﺘﺤﻔﻆ (ﺃﻭ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺤﻀﺮ) ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ (ﺇﻻ) ﺭﺟﻞ (ﺃﺟﻨﺒﻲ، ﺃﻭ) ﻓﻲ اﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺇﻻ اﻣﺮﺃﺓ (ﺃﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ .. ﻳﻤﻢ) ﻭﺟﻮﺑﺎ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻧﺠﺲ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻔﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ (ﺣﺞ)، ﻟﻜﻦ ﺑﺤﺎﺋﻞ؛ ﻟﺤﺮﻣﺔ اﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺣﻴﻨﺌﺬ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺷﻲء ﻣﻦ ﺑﺪﻥ اﻟﻤﻴﺖ ﻭاﻟﻤﺲ.

ﻭﻳﺆﺧﺬ ﻣﻨﻪ: ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺛﻴﺎﺏ ﺳﺎﺑﻐﺔ ﻭﺑﺤﻀﺮﺓ ﻧﻬﺮ ﻣﺜﻼ، ﻭﺃﻣﻜﻦ ﻏﻤﺴﻪ ﺑﻪ؛ ﻟﻴﺼﻞ اﻟﻤﺎء ﻟﻜﻞ ﺑﺪﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺲ ﻭﻻ ﻧﻈﺮ .. ﻭﺟﺐ.

ﻗﺎﻝ (ﺳﻢ): (ﺃﻭ ﺃﻣﻜﻦ ﺻﺐ ﻣﺎء ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻳﻌﻤﻪ).

MJC (SA)

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