Are Orphans eligible recipients of Zakāh?

Question

Are Orphans eligible recipients of Zakāh?
  1. An orphan is not eligible to receive zakāh solely based on being an orphan. The eight categories of recipients of zakāh are clearly mentioned in Sūrah al-Tawbah, verse 60.
  2. However, if an orphan is also classified as a faqīr (poor), by way of example, they may qualify as a recipient of zakāh. In such cases, the orphan must have reached the age of puberty.
  3. Orphans who have not reached the age of puberty cannot directly accept zakāh for themselves. Instead, zakāh can only be received on their behalf by a guardian (walī) or an appointed caregiver (qayyim). The father of a minor serves as their guardian, and in the father’s absence, the grandfather assumes this responsibility. If the father and grandfather are deceased and have not appointed a guardian, the Qāḍī (Islamic judge) becomes the guardian.
  4. When the Qāḍī assumes guardianship, he would typically appoint a qayyim (caregiver) for the child, who in turn assumes the role of the walī.
  5. In summary, pubescent orphans can directly accept zakāh on their own behalf, while non-pubescent orphans can only receive zakāh through their guardians or caregivers. If non-pubescent orphans do not have guardians, the Qāḍī will appoint a caregiver, preferably someone involved with the orphanage, who will receive zakāh on their behalf.
  6. It is important to emphasize that zakāh must be strictly utilized for the expenses and well-being of the specific zakāh recipient orphans, with the permission of pubescent orphans and the consent of the guardians or caregivers of non-pubescent orphans.

 

والله تعالى أعلم

And Allāh knows best

النصوص المستندة إليها

 

كتاب الفتاوى الفقهية الكبرى(ابن حجر الهيتمي) جـــــ 3 صـــــ 481

وَسُئِلَ هَلْ يَجُوزُ لِلْمَالِكِ أَنْ يَصْرِفَ مِنْ زَكَاتِهِ إلَى الْأَيْتَامِ الْفُقَرَاءِ الْحَاضِرِينَ عِنْدَ الْقَسْمِ لِتَعَسُّرِ مُرَاجَعَةِ الْقَاضِي وَنَصْبِ مَنْ يَقْبِضُ لَهُمْ أَوْ لَا؟

.فَأَجَابَ بِقَوْلِهِ لَا يَجُوزُ صَرْفُ الزَّكَاةِ إلَّا إلَى وَلِيِّ نَحْوِ الصَّبِيِّ وَلَا يَجُوزُ صَرْفُهَا وَلَا يُعْتَدُّ بِهِ لِغَيْرِ الْوَلِيِّ مُطْلَقًا، وَاَللَّهُ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى أَعْلَم

الفتاوى: اختصار مختصري فتاوى الشيخ ابن حجر (با كثير) صـــــ 573

…لا يجوز للمالك صرف شيء من زكاته إلى صغير، أو سفيه، وإنما يدفع لوليه، فإن فرض تعذر ولي يقبض له أو قاض يُنصّب له وليا

كفاية الأخيار(تقي الدين الحصني) صــــ 303

…الصَّغِير إِذا لم يكن لَهُ من ينْفق عَلَيْهِ …… وَالأَصَح أَنه يعْطى فَيدْفَع إِلَى قيمه لِأَنَّهُ قد لَا يكون فِي نَفَقَته غَيره

حاشية بن قاسم العبادي على الغرر البهية جـــــــ7 صـــــــــــ 203 

…قوله (لا قاض الخ) قال الشارح العراقي: ومقتضى كلام النظم وأصله أن للقاضي قبضها وصرفها وذلك في مال أيتام تحت نظره

MJC (SA)

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